Layering on Denali

13 August 2013

By ephrat

There are a myriad of challenges to layering properly on Denali:

  • There are times when the sunlight radiating off the glacier generates immense heat
  • Five minutes later you might be in a whiteout
  • Or you might fall in a crevasse
  • At night it can dip to -20
  • It's often windy
  • Clothing is heavy and you have to carry all of it day after day, so you only want to take what's absolutely necessary

In this post I'll describe my complete layering system, what worked, and what didn't work.

A Flexible Layering System

Due to the variable conditions often found when hiking and camping in the winter time, it's crucial to have a flexible layering system that lets you easily adapt to your surroundings. Here I've broken down my system by region of the body. In general, I start with lighter layers and work my way up from there, the only exception being wind protection.

Upper Body

As a woman, the first layer on my upper body is usually a sports bra. I then like to wear a form-fitting tank as an undershirt. This serves two purposes: if it gets really hot I can strip down to just the tank, and if it gets really cold I have extra, draft-free protection around my core. On top of this I wear a long-sleeve midweight baselayer, usually a Smartwool crew. I especially like Smartwool for extended trips since it doesn't stink nearly as badly as my synthetic alternatives.

For crisp days on the trail, my next layer is a warm vest. I prefer one with some sort of wind protection, such as softshell or light down rather than fleece. This layer works to keep my core warm while preventing me from overheating as I hike.

The next layer up is a lightweight fleece. I recently started using the Patagonia R1 hoody, and this has to be one of my favorite pieces of clothing! For the weight, it's surprisingly warm. The hood is really form-fitting, and when you zip it up all the way it essentially becomes a balaclava! It's also super cozy and stretchy, giving you a large range of motion.

When it's breezy out, I like to wear my next favorite item: the Patagonia Houdini wind jacket. This thing is incredible! It weighs only 4 ounces, does a fantastic job blocking wind, and breathes insanely well. I don't go anywhere without it.

It's rarely cold enough that I have to wear it while hiking, but next in line is my Patagonia ultralight down jacket. Again, it is super warm for the weight. I also like its low profile, making me feel less like a giant poof ball.

Last but not least is my puffy. The big fun, folks. This is the single article of clothing that I trust to keep me alive when the mercury drops. It also feels like you are wearing a giant cloud, which is just awesome! Aside from containing a boatload of high quality feathers, one feature I look for is an integrated hood. This is crucial for staying warm when the weather turns nasty. Some parkas also have an interior pocket for a water bottle, which keeps it accessible and from freezing. I personally don't like a lot of bulk around my chest, but that's just me. The jacket I settled on is the Eddie Bauer Peak XV. This is a sweet jacket for half the price of comparable jackets from other name brands. And it's incredibly warm. I wouldn't hesitate to take it with me on Denali again.

Lower Body

Layering for the lower body is a little simpler. For some reason the body seems to be less sensitive to variations in temperature than the upper body. Unless it's crazy hot, I typically wear a pair of midweight long underwear. I have the Smartwool ones and the new version of the Capilene 4 from Patagonia, which is supposedly expedition weight. I find they perform about the same.

On top of that I wear either softshell or hardshell pants, depending on what I'm doing and conditions. For Denali I skipped the softshells all together. My hardshell pants are made with Goretex and have full side zips. The Goretex makes them highly wind resistant, and the side zips make them easy to slip out of and into my next and perhaps favorite layer: my down pants!

I have a thick pair of down pants that I like to wear around camp. These also have full side zips, which means I can change into them as soon as I get to camp without having to take my boots off. On Denali I also brought a pair of thick fleece pants, but I think I only wore them once, at the 17k high camp. They are heavy, and it's debatable weather they're worth the weight.

Head and Hands

To protect my head and face, I brought a warm hat, a dorky sun hat with flaps that reach my shoulders, a lightweight balaclava and a heavyweight balaclava. I also brought an awesome expedition headband from Patagonia, which I probably wore more than anything else. It keeps my ears and forehead warm while letting my head vent. I only wore the heavyweight balaclava on summit day and while sleeping at high camp. It's definitely an essential item.

For my hands, I brought five different types of gloves: light and heavyweight liners, softshell gloves, heavy snow gloves, and expedition weight mittens. The liners are useful for doing chores around camp when you need more dexterity, and the softshells are great for hiking when it's not too cold out.

My hands tend to get really cold, and the mittens seen to work much better for me than the gloves. The only downside is the poor dexterity. On our way up to Denali pass, one of the more technical sections of the route, I had my right hand in a glove so I could clip and unclip the rope quickly, and I had my left hand in a mitten. It looked silly, but who cares?

With the weatger changing at the blink of an eye on Denali, I found that I constantly needed to change gloves in order to keep my hands happy. Since efficiency is really important on a climb like this, I always kept an alternate pair clipped to my harness. This way I could swap gloves as needed without having to stop and take off my pack. This also meant I could address cold fingers right away rather than wait for a safe and convenient time to take a break.


When I first started out, I would get blisters on virtually every hike. It didn't matter what shoes I was wearing, or how many bandaids I would preemptively place on my heels and toes; I would always go home with a blooming garden of bubbles on my feet. Until one day, someone told me to try pairing liner socks with my hiking socks. That day changed my life! I've hardly had a blister since.

For winter trips, I wear a thick wool sock. I like the Smartwool ones or the REI ones. Underneath those I wear a pair of Merino wool liners made by REI. They are reasonably priced and just wonderful. I can wear these for several days without needing to change them.

The boots I used on Denali are the La Sportiva Baruntse. They are a fantastic pair if boots that climb really well. I never had the immerse heat molded, and I find them to be extremely comfortable.

At camp I wear a pair of down booties, which I think is one of the best inventions ever! I even wear them to bed when it's really cold.

And finally, I have a pair of 40 Below overboots. These are essentially a thick and heavy neoprene sleeve for your boots that add extra warmth. Unfortunately they are pricey, and Denali is one of the only mountains in the world where you would need them. On top of that, you really only need them on summit day! Ah well, such is the price of keeping your toes. One thing you can do with them is wear them over your down booties for extra warmth.

What Worked

I was really pleased with my layering system. The pieces that stand out most for me, though, are the R1 hoody, the Houdini jacket, my down booties, and my down pants.

More Importantly, What Didn't Work

Fortunately, I did a lot of research and experimentation before the trip, so there was very little that didn't work for me. The only two things I didn't end up using (not even once!) were my warm hat and my Goretex jacket. The hat was kind of a surprise to me, as the temperatures definitely dipped well below zero on several nights. However, I wore my R1 hoody every day, and the hood provided plenty of warmth for my head (especially when combined with the hood of my puffy when hanging around camp at night). On extra cold nights I ended up sleeping with my balaclava on, and so I never really had occasion to wear my hat.

I decided to bring my GoreTex jacket along to wear during extra windy days. What I didn't consider is that when it's windy, it's really cold, and so I will already be wearing a puffy, which blocks the wind really well. Further, I don't really like wearing the jacket since it breathes horribly, and I often get tons of condensation on the inside of the jacket. Wet layers = a big no-no!

Tip for the ladies: about two or three days into the trip I decided to ditch the sports bra for good. The straps on the bra were rubbing too much on my collar bone from the weight of the pack, and my skin was getting really raw an irritated. Since my undershirt is pretty form-fitting, it provided plenty of support for me and I didn't miss the bra a bit!

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10 Tips for Camping in the Cold

18 June 2013

By ephrat

Photo by Hubert Koepfer

A large part of our training for Denali was learning how to camp in extremely cold temperatures. Going through this process, I have completely re-defined what I consider to be "cold." The first time I ever camped in relative cold was 10,000 feet up on the flanks of Split Mountain in California. The evening forecast was for temperatures hovering around 2 degrees Fahrenheit, but in retrospect I think it was actually quite a bit colder. I was completely underprepared.

I remember getting into camp just as the sun was setting. We immediately started shoveling snow and building a campsite. I was working hard and didn't realize how terribly cold it was starting to get. There was also a slight breeze, and it didn't occur to us to build walls to protect us from it. Within an hour I was shivering uncontrollably. A warm dinner helped a little. We decided to fill water bottles with hot water, which we could take into our sleeping bags to help keep us warm. However, after melting only about a liter and a half of snow, both of our stoves completely blew out. As it turns out, canister stoves don't function well (read: at all!) at sub-freezing temps.

I couldn't shake the cold. Fortunately, my friend Hubert had brought an extra puffy (not quite sure why). I crawled into my sleeping bag with every layer I had, and he wrapped the puffy around me. I probably had a foot of loft all together! I managed to fall asleep, and eventually my body recovered. But the episode was traumatizing, and I dreaded camping in the cold for a long time after that.

Through much trial and much error, I have now worked out a system with which I can be comfortable and functional at -20 degrees. Here are my 10 best tips to help you do the same.

1) The trick to being warm is to never get cold

You might be thinking ... "Duh?!" Ok, this seems fairly obvious, but it's a mistake that's incredibly easy to make. As soon as you get to camp, before you do anything else, put on your layers. Put on your puffy. If you have down pants, put those on too! (They are awesome, by the way!) Remember, down is meant to insulate, not generate heat. That means, it will keep warm things warm and cool things cool. When you get to camp, your body is warm. It's been working hard and generating lots of heat. So why let all of that heat escape? If you wait until you're cold before you put on your layers, then it's already too late.

2) Easy cooking

The last thing you want to do once the sun has gone down and you're getting cold is prepare a complicated, gourmet meal. You don't want to chop vegetables and make sauces and do too many things that require exposing your fingers to the cold.

Our dinners on Denali all followed the same format: we would start by melting snow and bringing a pot of water to boil. If we were dehydrated (often the case), we would start by drinking a few cups of water as the snow was melting. We would then make a bowl of instant soup. These are really easy to find in the bulk section of your local grocery store, or you can make them at home with a dehydrator! As we would share the soup, I would use the leftover hot water to start rehydrating a meal. This can either be a freeze-dried meal, a couscous based meal, or a meal you have dehydrated at home. To rehydrate, I place the food in a large mug, add hot water, and then cover and place in a cozy to keep warm. The meals generally take around 10 minutes to rehydrate, which is just enough time for us to finish the soup and digest for a few minutes.

The great thing about this system is that there is very little prep-work and very little cleanup involved. This is invaluable when it's -20 outside; trust me! Oh, and be sure to use a liquid-fuel stove.

Note: if you're interested in dehydrating your own food, The Backpacking Chef is a fantastic resource.

3) Down booties are your friends!

Many would consider these a luxury item, but for me they're essential. I have pretty warm boots, but as soon as I stop activity and am sitting around camp, my feet start to get numb. So now when I get to camp and layer up, I swap into these babies. They keep my feet toasty warm and give them a break from my boots. They're also great to sleep in when it's really frigid, completely eliminating cold spots on your feet!

4) Keep your fingers warm

One of the greatest challenges for me in the cold is keeping my hands warm. I have pretty bad circulation, and my hands suffer a lot in the cold. As a result, I often end up bringing three, four, or even five different pairs of gloves for a variety of purposes. These include: a set of thin liner gloves, thick liner gloves, softshell gloves, heavyweight gloves, and heavyweight mittens. I often wear the thin liner gloves underneath my heavyweight gloves or mittens while around camp, so that if I ever need to take off the bulkier outer layer to perform a task, I never expose raw skin to the biting cold. I use the thick liner gloves while I'm cooking, eating, pitching the tent, or when it's just too cold to perform tasks with the thin ones. And of course, the heavyweight gloves and mittens I wear when it's extremely cold and I don't need to use my hands much. I mainly use the softshell gloves for hiking when it's too warm to wear heavier gloves. I always make sure not to let my hands sweat in my gloves, otherwise they turn to blocks of ice overnight.

5) Your sleep insulation system should have a combined R-value of at least 5

I grew up hiking and backpacking mainly in the Southern California desert. We were dirtbags, and it never even occurred to me to use anything other than my $20 foam pad. Unfortunately, I learned the hard way that a single foam pad isn't really enough to insulate your sleeping body from the snow. There's lots of information online about this if you're curious, so let me just summarize: you want your sleeping pad(s) to have a combined R-value of at least 5.

What does that mean, you ask? The R-value is a measure of the insulating power of a material. My foam pad has an R-value of around 2.5 (no surprise I was cold). To get to 5, many people, myself included, combine two pads: a foam pad and an inflatable pad. Although it kind of sucks to carry two pads with you, at least you have a better chance of a restful, comfortable night!

6) Eat a lot and stay hydrated

I'm not a biologist or nutritionist, but I do know that when your body is hydrated and well-fed, it's going to have an easier time staying warm. I've had long days where we've made camp way too late and didn't make or drink enough water, and sometimes didn't even have the energy to make dinner. If you can help it, I don't recommend it. Backpacking in the cold is hard work, and if you start skipping on the bare essentials your body won't be able to fully recover. Why make your body work even harder? Give it the proper energy so it can do its job.

7) The old hot water bottle trick

If you're really chilled to the bone (it happens to the best of us), then the old hot water bottle trick can be a life saver. All you do is fill a sturdy water bottle, such as a Nalgene, with boiling hot water right before bed, and then bring it with you into the sleeping bag. This will radiate heat and usually generate enough heat to keep you toasty for quite a while. If you really want the warmth to last, you can put the bottle in a neoprene cozy. You won't get quite as much direct heat, but it will be warm almost until morning.

8) Don't be shy, use a pee bottle

In the past, Luca and I often intentionally limited how much we drank before bed so that we wouldn't have to get up in the middle of the night to pee. This is a pretty bad idea for obvious reasons, and we would often end up dehydrated. No fun. Although it might seem a little gross, consider taking a (well-marked!) pee bottle into the tent. A collapsible Nalgene bottle works well for this purpose. If you're a gal, a pee funnel such as the Freshette is invaluable. Just make sure to practice at home first. There's no good excuse for not drinking enough.

9) Take the time to set up your shelter properly

The great thing about camping in the snow is that you can create some pretty awesome shelters. If you expect it to be windy, you can build a wall around your tent (a snow saw is useful for this). A great trick is to dig a ditch where your vestibule is. This makes it easier to get in and out of the tent, to put your shoes on, and it also gives you extra storage space for your packs and gear. If you have time and energy, building a basic kitchen with a seating and cooking area. This is especially worthwhile if you are planning to stay for more than one night.

Luca rehydrates in the kitchen at 11,000ft on Denali.

One of the really frustrating things about camping in the cold is the condensation that inevitably builds up in your tent. You'd be surprised how much moisture is in your breath and how much frost you'll find inside your tent in the morning. You can minimize condensation by making sure that your tent is properly ventilated. Sometimes this means sleeping with the door completely open. On really cold nights I find that the frost can't even escape the mesh door, so I always leave at least the top half of it open.

10) Don't take shortcuts

Don't skip dinner. Don't skip melting snow and rehydrating. Both food and water will help your body stay warm and happy. Take the time to build a proper campsite and to pitch your tent correctly. Don't get lazy and postpone layering up. Don't expose your bare hands to the cold.

Yes, camping in the cold can be a lot of work, but it can also be fun and incredibly rewarding! Make sure you give yourself at least 1-2 hours (ideally before sunset) to setup camp and take care of chores. You'll be happy you did!

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